精華區beta L_TalkandCha 關於我們 聯絡資訊
※ [本文轉錄自 fun5566 信箱] 作者: fun5566 (8卦板譯人打賞箱沒錢) 看板: Gossiping 標題: [新聞] 吃肉加速臉部演化 BBC 時間: Sat May 28 09:53:11 2016 1.媒體來源: ※ 例如 BBC 新聞 2.完整新聞標題: ※ 標題沒有寫出來 ---> 依照板規刪除文章 Meat eating accelerated face evolution 吃肉加速臉部演化 3.完整新聞內文: ※ 社論特稿都不能貼! 違者退文,貼廣告也會被退文喔! 9 March 2016 Eating raw meat and making stone tools may be behind the smaller teeth and fac es of humans compared with their ancient relatives. 吃生肉與製造石器或許是人類的牙齒與臉型比其遠古近親還小的因素。 Meat and tools, not the advent of cooking, was the trigger that freed early hu mans to develop a smaller chewing apparatus, a study suggests. This in turn may have allowed other changes, such as improved speech and even shifts in the size of the brain. 在烹煮尚未出現前,肉與工具是促使早期人類發展出較小咀嚼構造的因子,一項研究顯示 。這或許因此使其他改變得以發生,例如說話能力的提升,甚至腦部大小的變化。 The authors conclude that cooking became commonplace much later. 研究撰文者結論說,烹煮要到很後來才變得尋常。 Prof Daniel Lieberman and Dr Katherine Zink from Harvard University have publi shed their work in the journal Nature. 哈佛大學的李伯曼教授與辛克博士將其研究成果發表於「自然」期刊。 The earliest members of our genus, Homo, are only sparsely represented in the fossil record. By the time the species Homo erectus appeared about two million years ago, hum ans had evolved bigger brains and bodies that had increased our daily energy r equirements. 在約200萬年前直立人出現的時代,人類已演化出較大的腦與軀體,增加我們每日能量的 需求。 But paradoxically, they had also evolved smaller teeth, as well as weaker chew ing muscles and bite force. They also had a smaller gut than earlier human anc estors. 但矛盾的是,他們也演化出較小的牙齒,以及較弱的咀嚼肌與啃咬力。他們也有比起較早 的人類祖先更小的腸子。 Something to chew on One of the possible reasons for these changes, cooking, did not become commonp lace until 500,000 years ago, the researchers found. This means that it probab ly did not play a significant role in the evolution of smaller chewing muscles and teeth. 導致這些變化的可能原因之一是,烹煮要到50萬年前才成為司空見慣,研究人員發現。 (沒新臺幣亂翻以下1句, 若有錯 請更正) 這意味著,它可能在 較小的咀嚼肌和牙齒 的演化裡,並沒有扮演著1個重要的角色。 "If you were to go and spend time with chimpanzees, you'd find that they spend .. about half of their day chewing," said Prof Lieberman. (以下1句me friend沒拿錢的亂翻譯) “如果你要去 並且花時間與黑猩猩們,你會發現,他們花..大約他們半天的時間在咀嚼,” 利伯曼教授說。 ^^ "At some point in human evolution, there was a shift - we started to eat less. This shift is made possible by two factors: we eat a much higher quality diet than our ancestors, but we also eat food that has been heavily processed." The scientists evaluated chewing performance by feeding adult experimental sub jects samples of meat, and the kind of vegetables our early ancestors might ha ve consumed before incorporating meat into their diets. They measured the muscular effort required for chewing and how well the food w as broken up before swallowing. The findings suggest that by eating a diet of one-third meat, and using stone tools to process the food - slicing the meat and pounding the plant material - early humans would have needed to chew 17% less often and 26% less forcefully . 該研究因而推測,由於生肉佔3分之1的飲食,以及利用石器處理食物──切割肉類與搗碎 植物食材──早期人類減少17%咀嚼次數與26%的咀嚼力道。 In their paper, Lieberman and Zink argue: "We further surmise that meat eating was largely dependent on mechanical processing made possible by the invention of slicing technology. "Meat requires less masticatory force to chew per calorie than the sorts of ge nerally tough plant foods available to early hominins, but the ineffectiveness of hominin molars to break raw meat would have limited the benefits of consum ing meat before the invention of stone tools approximately 3.3 million years a go." 4.完整新聞連結 (或短網址): ※ 當新聞連結過長時,需提供短網址方便網友點擊 http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-35766760 5.備註: 這篇是陌生人 魏國金 拿新臺幣後翻譯的,有沒有誤呀? ※ 一個人一天只能張貼一則新聞,被刪或自刪也算額度內超貼者水桶,請注意 (1) 評論: 一進國中(1年級), 歷史老師不就告訴我們 "50萬年前" 發現了什麼人? 現在蔡英文總統上任未滿7天就告訴我們,可以穿便服去上國中,多棒,德政,對吧? 請問有看到的人. (2) 陌生人 魏國金 拿新臺幣後,沒有全都翻譯,對吧? (3) 有人說看不懂,但me不曉得看不懂什麼. 古金水殺了自己的親哥哥,請問是不是呀? (4) 以後全國學生都可以穿便服去學校上學,很棒,有看到的人,是吧? 這是蔡英文總統上任未滿1週(中國時報 用"周"這個字), 在電視上所宣揚的自己的德政之一 (5) 題目來源: 4天前的 http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/supplement/paper/993009 「這次5月11日發現小學提供的竹筍炊飯居然含銫高達234貝克/公斤,超過日本當前基準 值的100貝克/公斤,連在核電廠裡超過100貝克...」 題目: "假設" 234貝克/公斤的竹筍炊飯進口到台灣,小英大喊好吃,此炊飯大賣, 拿去丟掉會被人發現,你跑去總統府感謝小英總統高效率的免穿制服上學, "1個便當不夠,你可以吃兩個阿", 於是你搶走了小英大喊好吃卻沒吃的 竹筍炊飯,假設你吃下了剛好1公斤的此 竹筍炊飯,請問你吃下了幾克的銫-134? 註: 銫-134的半衰期 2 年。 給第1個答對的,這篇全部的p幣。 (6)沒實力,不會寫以上這題高中題沒關係,記得穿便服去學校,靠繁星讀台大, 繁星就是給沒實力的人 讀名校用的,名校裡的屎,會對名校起什麼作用? 1顆屎 會對一鍋粥 起什麼作用? (7) me friend都覺得輻射5縣市, 5太少了, 竟先前還聽聞蔡總統又將1項德政: 要開放輻射5縣市的食品給台灣人民吃。 在輻射食品上,為何不學學韓國和中國大陸...等等? -- ※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc), 來自: ※ 文章網址: https://www.ptt.cc/bbs/Gossiping/M.1464400397.A.669.html ※ 編輯: fun5566 (, 05/28/2016 09:56:36
em4: 又沒後代 演化什麼 05/28 09:54
CHU094080: 這跟用進廢退論有關係嗎? 05/28 09:56
all0pha765: 10樓吃洨加速腦部退化 05/28 09:56
kawazima8869: are you high? 05/28 09:58
linzero: 最早是大嘴巴的天下,ˇ有大嘴巴才較易啃動生肉生存。熟 05/28 09:59
linzero: 食後也有小嘴巴的生存空間。然後小嘴吧因一些優勢取取代 05/28 10:00
linzero: 了大嘴吧的地位。優勢大概跟說話發聲有關。不過我覺得或 05/28 10:01
linzero: 許跟審美觀之類的也有關吧 05/28 10:01
Butcherdon: 其實變小的不只嘴巴 05/28 10:19
metalhead: 黨工好忙 05/28 10:20
loveinlove: 恭啥小? 05/28 10:49
※ 刪除原因: (已被blaz刪除) <fun5566>政問 ※ Deleted by: blaz ( 05/29/2016 08:22:37 ※ Delete Reason: (已被blaz刪除) <fun5566>政問 ※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc) ※ 轉錄者: fun5566 (, 06/24/2016 17:27:35